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Extra info for A History of Sea-Air Aviation - Wings Over the Ocean
The British had tried in the late 1920s to establish commercial air transport by rigid airship to Canada, Egypt and India, but their efforts had failed. The British Air Ministry had funded the construction of two airships, KlOO (built by a civilian company) and Kl 01 (built by the Air Ministry). They made their first test flights in 1929-l 930. Then in July 1930, RlOO fl cw to Montreal and back to England, weathering some bad storms en route. After difficulties in its flight tests and subsequent modifications, Rl 01 was provisionally certified as airworthy and prepared for the first of the “Empire flights” to India.
Brooks estimates that if helium had replaced hydrogen, lighter-than-air costs Per seat-mile would have been 50 to 100 percent greater than they were with hydrogen. ” Heavier-than-air achieved craft dominance in long-range and transoceanic commercial air transport only very gradually. The dirigible could, of course, compensate for having a slower speed than airplanes with its greater range and bigger payload. In the 1920s and ’30s individua1 airplanes were able make impress,ive transoceanic to flights.
Ground direction finders to aid navigation and emphasized long-distance navigational training. By 1938 it required that navigators on transoceanic flights make celestial observations at least hourly, day and night; that drift be measured; that its many ground direction finder stations keep track of airborne craft; and that the planes, in turn, measure radio bearings. Air-crews were told not to depend upon only one system of navigation; instead they were to use and coordinate all available means of overocean navigation so that any errors would be minimized.
A History of Sea-Air Aviation - Wings Over the Ocean