Read e-book online A Student Grammar of French PDF

By Malcolm Offord

ISBN-10: 0521547628

ISBN-13: 9780521547628

A scholar Grammar of French is a concise advent to French grammar, designed in particular for English-speaking undergraduates. maintaining technical element to a minimal, it explains the basics of the grammar in obtainable and easy phrases, and is helping scholars to place their studying into perform via various enjoyable and fascinating routines. all of the crucial issues are coated, with chapters on verbs, nouns, adjectives, pronouns, determiners, prepositions, adverbs, negation, numerals, sentences, and clauses. each grammatical element is illustrated with quite a number real examples drawn from magazines and newspapers, protecting many components of latest lifestyles akin to model, wellbeing and fitness matters, relationships and game. it really is truly equipped right into a effortless, numbered indexing approach, permitting the learner to quick and simply find any grammatical subject. Functioning either as an imperative reference consultant and a entire workbook, this grammar turns into the precise accompaniment to any first or moment 12 months undergraduate path.

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Additional resources for A Student Grammar of French

Example text

10 25 –ir verbs Subgroup 2 aller je vais, tu vas, il/elle/on va, ils/elles vont but nous allons, vous allez s’en aller = to go away is conjugated in the same way. 22 Group 2 –ir Verbs 23 Present tense of Group 2 –ir verbs We need to draw a distinction between those –ir verbs that insert –iss– between stem and ending with certain persons – Subgroup 1, by far the most numerous subgroup – and those that do not – the other subgroups. 24 –ir verbs Subgroup 1 The endings for the typical –ir verb finir = to finish are added to the stem fin– for the three persons singular, and to the stem plus –iss– for the three persons plural – singular first person fin–is second person fin–is third person fin–it plural fin–issons fin–issez fin–issent 25 –ir verbs Subgroup 2 The endings for a typical –ir verb, without –iss– in the plural, are added to the stem.

The verbs are descendre, monter, passer, rentrer, retourner, sortir Examples Elle a descendu le coffre = she brought down the trunk Nous avons mont´e leurs bagages = we took their luggage up Ils ont pass´e le mois de janvier en Espagne = they spent January in Spain Il a rentr´e son chien a` cause du bruit = he brought his dog into the house because of the noise Elle a retourn´e le vase pour e´ valuer sa qualit´e = she turned the vase over to get an idea of its quality Ils ont sorti les d´echets = they brought the rubbish out 2 Another group of verbs (not listed in 63) may be conjugated with either auxiliary without the matter of transitivity being involved.

Usage As will be explained in 135, 138, the future tense refers to events that have yet to take place, the conditional to ‘the future in the past’ and to express doubt or probability. 46 Endings of future and conditional tenses In the majority of cases, forming the future and conditional tenses is a relatively simple matter. For all Group 1 –er verbs (except aller and envoyer – see 49), the following endings are added to the stem. However, the stem undergoes variation in a few cases – see 48. Future tense singular plural –erai –erons –eras –erez –era –eront Conditional tense singular plural –erais –erions –erais –eriez –erait –eraient For all Group 2 –ir verbs (except cueillir – see 51), the following endings are added to the stem – Future tense singular –irai –iras –ira plural –irons –irez –iront Conditional tense singular plural –irais –irions –irais –iriez –irait –iraient For Group 3 –re verbs, the following endings are added to the stem.

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A Student Grammar of French by Malcolm Offord

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