An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics - download pdf or read online

By David G. Andrews

ISBN-10: 0521693187

ISBN-13: 9780521693189

A quantitative creation to the Earth's surroundings for intermediate-advanced undergraduate and graduate scholars, with an emphasis on underlying actual rules. This variation has been introduced thoroughly updated, and now contains a new bankruptcy at the physics of weather swap which builds upon fabric brought in past chapters, giving the coed a vast realizing of a few of the actual options underlying this most vital and topical topic. not like many different books on atmospheric technology, the emphasis is at the underlying physics. Atmospheric purposes are constructed normally within the difficulties given on the finish of every bankruptcy. The e-book is a vital source for all scholars of atmospheric physics as a part of an atmospheric technology, meteorology, physics, Earth technology, planetary technology, or utilized arithmetic path.

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13), g dz = −Ra T d(ln p); integration gives z 2 − z1 = − Ra g p2 T d(ln p). p1 The integral can in principle be evaluated if the temperature T is known as a function of pressure p: this may be provided for example by a weather balloon or a satellite-borne instrument. In particular, if T is constant, z 2 − z1 = Ra T p1 ln ; g p2 if T is not constant, we can still write z2 − z 1 = p1 Ra T ln , g p2 provided that we define T as a suitably weighted mean temperature within the layer: T= p1 p2 T d(ln p) .

54) A droplet then starts to condense, at fixed temperature and pressure; suppose that at some later instant its radius is a, so that its surface area is A = 4π a2 and its mass is ml = 4π a3 ρl /3 (where ρl is the density of the liquid) and the mass of the surrounding vapour is mv . 55) where γ is the surface tension (or the surface energy per unit area). 53), 4 e G − G0 = − πa3 ρl Rv T ln 3 es (T) + 4π a2 γ . 56) The variation with radius a of the total Gibbs free energy of the system therefore takes the form G(a) = G0 − βa3 + αa2 .

Hence dρv dMl /dt 1 , = dr 4π D r2 which can be integrated from r = a to r = ∞ to give ρv (a) = ρv (∞) − 1 dMl . 4π Da dt Therefore, using the ideal gas law ρv = e/(Rv T) for the vapour, e(a) dMl 4π Da e(∞) = 4πDa [ρv (∞) − ρv (a)] = − , dt Rv T(∞) T(a) where e(∞) and T(∞) are the vapour pressure and temperature far from the droplet and e(a) and T(a) are the same quantities at its surface. 48 Atmospheric thermodynamics Further reading There are many thermodynamics textbooks covering the material used in this chapter: an excellent, comprehensive modern example is Blundell and Blundell (2009).

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An Introduction to Atmospheric Physics by David G. Andrews

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