By Michiel Steyaert (Editor), Arthur H.M. van Roermund (Editor), Johan H. Huijsing (Editor)
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Nordholt Catena. Elektronicaweg 40 2628 XG Delft, Netherlands Abstract A qualitative structured approach to the design of low-noise amplifiers is presented. Emphasis is on design methodology rather than on specific specification issues. The LNA configuration is synthesized based on the requirements of the source and the load. Some examples will support the design methodology. 1. Introduction. LNA design is traditionally approached as a copy and modify action of proven concepts known from literature or recommended by colleague designers.
For a random input signal will however not be the best solution. In addition a filter transfer function is per definition frequency dependent, making it difficult to define an allowed fixed distortion voltage. Hence, to include phase information and to exploit the real transfer function, a Volterra series model is applied . The disadvantage is that the model is somewhat more complex but is still manageable with programs like Maple® that can handle symbolic expressions. 5 (Figure 8). However, for the sake of brevity, only a third-order harmonic distortion is calculated here and not an intermodulation distortion product.
Both operations are explained in detail in . For the scaling operation, a is used is the scale factor) to keep the signal levels at the outputs of the integrators equal. In case all the maximal internal amplitudes have to be equal, a is needed. Scaling is done with a transformation matrix T. K and W are the controllability and observability Gramian matrices. The scaled state-space matrices are obtained as: Other transformation matrices T are also possible and can yield better dynamic ranges for the filter.
Analog Circuit Design: Structured Mixed-Mode Design, Multi-Bit Sigma-Delta Converters, Short Range RF Circuits by Michiel Steyaert (Editor), Arthur H.M. van Roermund (Editor), Johan H. Huijsing (Editor)